THE PRINCIPLES OF. PROJECT. MANAGEMENT. BY MERI WILLIAMS. RUN PROJECTS ON TIME AND TO BUDGET USING THIS SIMPLE STEP-BY-STEP. PDF | On Jan 1, , R. Max Wideman and others published Fundamental Principles of Project Management. A key factor of successful project management is to see a project as a series of interrelated tasks. – Most other courses focus on how to perform a single complex .
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The six principles of project management transitions easily to any type of project or initiative you are trying to effectively implement. Team FME. Project Management Skills. Project Management. Principles The Project Management Institute (PMI) is a not-for-profit professional organization for the project management They can be downloaded in PDF,. site, ePub, or. PROJECT MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES. AND TECHNIQUES: How to plan and manage a special project from start to finish. A General Learning Climates, Inc.
A Case Study. Previous Article Next Article. Principle 1: Vision and Mission In order to be successfully executed, every project or initiative should begin with the end in mind. Principle 2: Business Objectives The next step is to establish two to three goals or objectives for the project.
Principle 3: Standards of Engagement Simply put, this means establishing who will be part of the project team? Principle 4: Intervention and Execution Strategy This is the meat of the project and includes using a gap analysis process to determine the most suited intervention solution to resolve the issue you are working on. Principle 5: Organisational Alignment To ensure the success and sustainability of the new initiative or process brought on by this project, everyone it will directly impact must be onboard.
Principle 6: Measurement and Accountability And last, how will we determine success? The Six Principles of Project Management.
Principle 2: Business Objectives
I was looking for a simple, yet effective process to follow for a complex project that I will be managing. I have found it - thank you. Great article Theo I've stumbled upon it looking for some structured project theory to take to a severely flawed rollout I have recently been pulled into.
They can help a project remain in the green and avoid going in the yellow… or the dreaded red. Think of a risk response team as the first line of defense when problems occur.
Hold a project kick-off In order to manage a successful project, you need to align all your stakeholders with an initial kick-off meeting. You should include everyone that is going to have a stake in the project, so expectations are managed up front.
The earlier you get on their radar the better. This will help with communicating smaller tasks and assignments to various team members down the line. Making sure everyone is aware of the project from the beginning is a simple, yet effective way to drive a healthy project to production. Use a detailed work definition document A common issue with managing projects is clarifying who is responsible for what.
A detailed work document takes care of the uncertainty and confusion. It clearly documents what level of work needs to be done by what group or individual, so everyone has a clear understanding of the level of effort involved.
To create accountability within your project, use a detailed work definition document and make all your stakeholders sign in agreement. Create a detailed work plan Formalizing your project's work plan is key to meeting deadlines and hitting milestones. What gets measured gets done, and a detailed work plan is a simple way to measure all the different moving parts of a project.
Document everything As a project manager, have you ever seen an assignment slip by a few days, or worse, a few weeks? A stakeholder is deined as anyone with an interest in the project, irrespective of whether that interest is positive or negative.
They may be individuals or organizations that are actively involved in the project, or whose interests may be affected by the execution or completion of the project. In addition to those on the project team potential stakeholders include those shown in the diagram. Stakeholders can be internal to the organization or external. In many projects the public at large will become a stakeholder to be considered during the project.
The challenge for the project manager when the public is a stakeholder will be to act while considering public needs.
Often there is no direct representative of the public to be consulted during project planning and execution. Stakeholder analysis is so important that a wide variety of experts are consulted to help analyze the actual level and the desired level of engagement level of the various stakeholders.
It details how you communicate with stakeholders and ensures appropriate engagement levels.
If you intend to manage a project then you will need a detailed knowledge of these roles and their responsibilities. However, in order to understand the basic principles of project management there are only two roles that you need to know about in any detail, the project sponsor and the project manager. KEy POINtS 4 Irrespective of how the organization is structured, there are certain roles and responsibilities that are required in all projects.
Even though this implies that the project sponsor can be a group of people, it is usually far better if there is one named individual who has been given this role. An effective sponsor will be someone with the authority and personal drive to overcome major obstacles to completing the project. It can be helpful to think about this in terms of the project manager working for the sponsor who is in turn working for the organization. The project sponsor may be either internal or external to the organization that will be undertaking the project work.
Many different permutations are possible—for example, an internal sponsor may commission a project that will call only on resources within the organization.
Alternatively, the entire project may be outsourced to a third party.
The project sponsor should appoint a project manager to take on the responsibility for delivering the project in accordance with its objectives. There are two main differences between project sponsorship and project management.
Firstly, project sponsorship includes the identiication and deinition of the project, whereas project management is concerned with delivering a project that is already deined, if only quite loosely. They have the authority to use cash and other resources up to the limit set in the project charter. You should also be aware of some of the issues that are raised when assigning people to projects, particularly if they have continuing duties in their own department, and you can bring attention to potential issues before they arise.
Finally, with the knowledge of the speciic roles and responsibilities of the project sponsor and the project manager you can ensure that others within your organization are aware of these requirements when developing a project.
The project manager should be appointed, by the project owner, to assume day-to-day management of the project.
8 Principles of Project Management
The project manager should be responsible for planning at the project and sub-project level, exercising control, ensuring product delivery and for management and motivation of staff working on the project. Successful project management involves dealing effectively with managers and supporting personnel across departmental and functional lines, often with little or no formal authority. Thereafter, the sub-project managers will report directly to the project manager, via regular progress reports.
These progress reports represent an up-to-date summary of the status of the project and should be compiled on a regular basis, usually weekly of every two weeks. Highlight reports should be produced at regular intervals, for example monthly, and may also be produced in response to exceptional circumstances.
The project manager will need to maintain clear communications with other management bodies, appropriate to the size of the project. They should submit the project plans and sub-project plans to the project owner for approval and then advise the owner if there are any signiicant deviations from them. If tolerances are being exceeded then remedial plans may also need to be submitted for the approval of the project owner. An important function of the project manager is to establish an appropriate environment within which the project is to operate.
A number of issues need to be addressed early on to ensure that the project can proceed eficiently and effectively from the outset.
In addition to preparing the project plan, the project manager should specify or create a coniguration management method for the project. Coniguration management covers the tracking, documentation and issue of all project documents and products, throughout the project life cycle.
The project manager should agree the technical and quality strategy for the project, with the section that is responsible for organizational policy. It is important that the project manager also maintains clear communication with any related projects to ensure that work is neither overlooked nor duplicated. Decisions which effect the strategic direction of a project will almost certainly need to be referred to a senior management body or individual, but it is the project manager who will have to make the recommendations and then put into effect the decisions made.
The project manager should be aware that disagreements have the potential to arise at all levels. The issue that underlies a particular conlict may not be immediately apparent. Personality clashes are a classic underlying problem that very few people feel able to raise and discuss. It is common for personality conlicts to manifest themselves as a dispute over some project issue—for example a technical stand-off.
This is where experience is invaluable, enabling the project manager to identify the real issues and then to address them effectively. KEy POINtS 4 The sponsor is responsible for securing the inancing and overall resource budget approval and owns the opportunities and risks related to the inancial outcome of the project.
This is understandable because of the complicated nature and diversity of projects, which can vary enormously in size and complexity. Project Initiation 2. Project Planning 3. Project Execution 4. The number of activities depends on the scope of the project. A simple project will involve only a few activities while a more complex project may involve hundreds or thousands of individual activities.
This model can be applied to a variety of project scenarios although the cost and duration of each phase will vary according to the particular project. Projects are temporary structures set up with the speciic aim of delivering an identiiable end-product.
All projects will therefore have an identiiable life cycle, the characteristics of which will vary according to the size and complexity of the project. For example, in the case of a project whose aim is to evaluate, recommend and implement a computerized accounts system. The costs of the project are restricted to the selection of the most suitable system available and the training and implementation necessary for its introduction.
The actual download of the system is not within the terms of reference of the project, as this capital cost will be taken from a separate budget. A typical life cycle will run from the formal initiation of a project through to a post implementation review PIR of the delivered end-product. This post implementation review is not shown as it is usually held some months after the project has been formally closed. There is often little agreement between industries, or even between organizations within the same industry, about the life cycle phases of a project.
This is understandable because of the complicated nature and diversity of projects. A ive-phase project life cycle model can be applied to a variety of project scenarios although the cost and duration of each phase will vary according to the particular project. The conceptual phase includes the preliminary evaluation of an idea. It is common for this phase to include a irst cut feasibility study for the proposed project.
This analysis should also include a preliminary risk assessment. The resources required by the project should be deined along with time, cost and performance estimates.
Project estimation is a dificult task—especially in this early phase.
However it is essential that costs are quantiied, as this information is needed to establish whether or not the project should proceed. Once a project has received the funding and backing of senior management it can proceed to the production phase.
Don't Forget These 10 Project Management Best Practices (Infographic)
This incorporates the production, or acquisition, of the end-product speciied. This begins with the updating of detailed plans, started in the preceding phases and encompasses the identiication and management of the resources required.
This phase also includes the development of manuals, plans and other documentation that will support the end product in its live environment.
The operation phase involves the integration of the end-product or service into the organizational environment.
The Six Principles of Project Management
If the end-product was a marketable product then this phase would typically include the product life cycle phases of marketing and reinement. The divestment phase involves the reallocation of resources that are no longer required by the current project. The end-product of any project will have a inite lifespan and therefore its ability to generate revenue will be limited. The organization will usually need to run future projects to guarantee its revenue stream.
This phase also incorporates the post implementation evaluation of the delivered end-product, and this should serve as input to the conceptual phase of future projects. The use of resources over time will vary according to each particular project. Whilst it may be possible to characterize life cycle proiles within different industry sectors, this can give a false impression as individual projects can vary radically from the generic proile. KEy POINtS 4 All projects can be mapped to the following simple life cycle structure: starting the project, organizing and preparing, carrying out the work, and closing the project.
This model can be simpliied into a three or four phase view to which formal organizational processes can be applied. However, you can also look at project management from the perspective of the individual processes involved.Projects need to be managed to meet their objectives, which are deined in terms of expectations of time, cost, and quality.
Finally, with the knowledge of the speciic roles and responsibilities of the project sponsor and the project manager you can ensure that others within your organization are aware of these requirements when developing a project. Chapter 4 - Project Organization and Structure The way in which an organization is structured is largely a result of whether its day-to-day work is process driven or project driven.
LPM establishes the critical chain after removing resource contentions, rather than before considering the resource limitations. Document everything As a project manager, have you ever seen an assignment slip by a few days, or worse, a few weeks? There are many quality management concepts that can be applied ranging from a comprehensive "root cause analysis" to simply "asking why five times.
Projects are all about utilizing existing resources and expertise in an eficient and effective way to get things done.