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METAFISIKA SUBSTANSI ILMU LOGIKA. Full Text: PDF Basiq Djalil, Logika (Ilmu Mantiq), Jakarta: Kencana Prenada Media, Burhanuddin Salam. Ilmu Mantiq. Uploaded by Fava Fava Download as PPT, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd. Flag for inappropriate Pengertian Terminologis Mantiq. PDF | This is a teaching material of Logic in Faculty of Law Universitas Muhammadiyah Sidoarjo, The lesson given for first year Filsafat Ilmu.
This is known as necessary or axiomatic knowledge, whether this knowledge takes the form of a conception or the form of an assent. There are other affairs, however, which the human being cannot grasp easily. He must use reflection, intellectual work, and rational equations like those of algebra.
Through this, he is able to move from what is already known to that which is not known. He would be unable to do this immediately, without this pre-existing knowledge, and the organization of this knowledge in a sound and correct fashion.
This is what we call reflective or acquired knowledge.
There is no doubt that the logician does not fulfill his basic purposes except through meanings; yet the logician cannot do without a study of the vocal expressions alfaz which lead to these meanings. However, vocal expressions can be changed and mixed up, in a way that prevents them from being fully comprehended.
As such, the logician needs to study vocal expressions from a general angle, without dealing with the particularities of a specific language. This is necessary for him to be properly understood, so that there will be a proper correspondence between his own words and the words of others. As such, we would say from a general perspective : Logic is a general science that is not associated with any particular language.
Nonetheless, there might be an occasion to study things which are particular to the language being used by this logician. However, he may also be able to do without such a study, relying only upon the general principles of language.
This need is far greater and far stronger than the first need. In reality, it is probably the actual reason for including semiotics in the study of logic. There are four modes of existence: two of them are actual modes of existence, while two of them are only expressive modes of existence.
The actual impressions therein are called mental existence, which is the same as knowledge ilm. The most basic way of doing this is to actually take something from external reality and present to another, in order to give another a sense of perception of that thing.
This method of making oneself understood will require great burden, insofar as it is impossible to use this method to convey an understanding of most things and most meanings.
This is because some things have no external existence, while other things while having external existence , find it impossible to make themselves present to another. As such, Allah the Exalted has inspired the human race to establish an easy and immediate way of making oneself known. He has blessed the human being with the power of words and speech, the ability to separate different letters, and to form these letters into words.
With the passage of time, human beings felt the need to establish a special expression, which would allow them to make themselves understood.
Logika (Ilmu mantiq) / H.A. Basiq Djalil
This would allow one to make a meaning present to another through vocal expressions, instead of having to bring the actual thing every time. Contemplate this well!
This fixed relationship derives from knowledge of the way these words have been coined, and from frequent use of these words. Through this, such a firm relationship is obtained, so much so that the vocal expression and the meaning are united.
If a speaker makes present a given expression, it is the same as if he brought the actual meaning to the one listening to him. As such, there is no difference between externally bringing the actual meaning, and bringing the vocal expression which has been established for this meaning. In both situations, the mind of the listener will be conveyed to the meaning. Because of this, it is possible that the mind of the listener may be conveyed to the meaning, while he is actually unaware of the specific phrase and its special characteristics, as if he never heard the phrase at all.
This is true, even though the conveyance of his mind from this vocal expression to that meaning does not occur except through hearing the expression. What this all means is that the semiotic relationship unites the vocal expression and the meaning, making it like a single entity.
If one finds the expression, it is as if one finds the meaning. For this reason, one can say "the existence of the vocal expression is the existence of the meaning. Attributing the existence of the vocal expression to the existence of the meaning is, in fact, purely metaphorical, derived from this relationship, which itself derives from the actual coining of the expression.
This relationship and unity is obvious from the way that ugliness and beauty are transferred to vocal expressions, and vice-verse. The name of the beloved is the sweetest vocal expression for the lover, even though it could be a bestial vocal expression which irritates the ears and the tongue.
Meantime, the name of the enemy is the ugliest of names, even if this vocal expression itself is rather pleasant. Whenever this kind of relationship is increased, the mental conveyance is increased, and so one sees variation in the ugliness of vocal expressions and the ugliness of the meanings. For example, the terms for the sexual organs of people; frequent use of these vocal expressions is uglier than infrequent use of them.
In fact, there may be no ugliness in these terms at all. Similar is the case for colorless terms or sweet terms; they may have a beauty which one would not find in the vocal expression themselves.
Verbal statements, by themselves, are not sufficient for fulfilling the needs of human beings, because one can only use verbal statements to express meaning to people who are actually present. As for those who are absent, or those who have not yet come, there must be another means for people to make themselves known. As such, the human race decided to create lined engravings in order to make present his verbal vocal expressions, and the vocal expressions which determine meaning.
This would be an alternate means of making things known, instead of speech. As such, a written line is the existence of an expression, and a vocal expression is the existence of meaning. Attributing existence to the vocal expression and the meaning is metaphorical, based on an intentional determination, just as attributing the existence of a vocal expression to a meaning is also metaphorical, based on an intentional determination. As such, writing makes vocal expressions present, and vocal expressions make meanings present to the mind, and the mental meaning confirms the external existence.
It should then be clear that vocal and written existence is metaphorical and nominal based on an intentional association, and common usage. Signification: Signification al-dalalah , which constitutes one of the essential sections in Logic text books, has been defined by al-Mudhaffar via another articulate thought-experiment: If you hear a knock on your door, your mind is immediately conveyed without a doubt to the conception that there is someone at the door who wants your attention.
This is for no other reason than this knock on the door reveals to you the existence of a person who wants your attention. As such, one can say: The knock on the door signifies the existence of that person. The knock on the door is a signifier, and the existence of the person calling you is signified. These attribute which come about through the process of signification.
This is how we describe every situation where something existent conveys your mind to the existence of something other. The first thing we refer to as the signifier, and the second as the signified.
These are the attributes which arise through the process of signification. Rational signification occurs when there is an essential relationship between the signifier and the signified in terms of their external existence. An example would be cause and effect. As such, the morning light signifies the sun through rational signification.
Another example would be hearing somebody speak from behind a wall; one would then know that there is someone speaking present there. This is a relationship between two things that are natural, and by this it means something that the nature of human beings would necessitate.
This time of signification will vary with the differences of human beings. It is not like the relationship of cause and effect, in which there is no disagreement.
There are many examples of this kind of indication. Other types of natural indication would include people cracking their fingers, or yawning when they are bored, or playing with something he has with him, or fiddling with ones beard or nose, or placing his fingers between the tops of his ears when he is thinking, or yawning when he is tired. If a person is aware of these connections, then his mind will be conveyed from one of the two necessary terms to another.
And if a person sees someone playing with his rosary, then they know that this person is thinking. Selepas aku jenguk senarai rujukan buku ini, baru lah aku mengerti.
Rujukan penulis semuanya kitab Arab. Hatta dalam perbahasan mantiq moden yang kebanyakannya berbincang tentang gerakan dan tokoh Barat sumber rujukannya masih kitab Arab.
Jadi aku fikir, buku ini seolah-olah satu 'terjemahan' juga, oleh itu, kesukaran membacanya. Setelah sekali membaca buku ini, aku fikir mantiq ini jadi kompleks kerana kecenderungan pengasas dan para ulama' nya untuk membuat pembahagian-pembahagian perkara.
Hampir kesemuanya mahu dilabel sebagai A atau B kemudian barulah dibuat penghukuman samada benar atau salah. Jadi, walaupun sebenarnya isunya terlalu remeh, kita dipaksa bekerja dua tiga kali lipat untuk memahami sesuatu yang nyata dan ada what is dan sesuatu yang tak nyata atau tidak ada what is not.
Seolah-olahnya begitu. Begitu juga dengan aktiviti mencari kelemahan, yang dapat digunakan bagi memperbaiki kelemahan itu, supaya Begitu juga dengan aktiviti mencari kelemahan, yang dapat digunakan bagi memperbaiki kelemahan itu, supaya idea tersebut menjadi sempurna.
Logic in Islamic philosophy
Tetapi pemikiran yang hanya mampu mencari kesilapan dan kelemahan tidak cukup bagi membolehkan seseorang mencapai keberkesanan intelektual. Kesalahan Berfikir: Apples and Oranges: Also see Michael E. George F.As for those who are absent, or those who have not yet come, there must be another means for people to make themselves known.
Logic, as has been mentioned earlier, protects human thinking from making flawed conclusions and doxa, i. A person would then derive a conceptual image which can be applied to all these particulars. Fourthly, the immanence aspect of logic is proposition. Aku tak pasti samada normatif mantiq memang memeningkan atau sebaliknya, tetapi aku fikir susunan bahasa yang digunakan sebagai medium pemudah cara dalam buku ini boleh 'dimudahkan' lagi.
Safina added it Jan 28, Selepas aku jenguk senarai rujukan buku ini, baru lah aku mengerti.
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