night, when thou spokest of Pigrogromitus, of the. Vapians passing the equinoctial of Queubus: 'twas very good, i' faith. I sent thee sixpence for thy leman : hadst. Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the public and we . Free PDF, epub, site ebook. Twelfth Night; or, What You Will is a comedy, believed to have been written around –02 as a Twelfth Night's entertainment .
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FM.F 4/26/00 PM Page iCLIFFSCOMPLETEShakespeare'sTwelfth Night Edited by Sidney Lamb Associate Profe. Shakespeare Theatre Company's production of. Twelfth Night by William Shakespeare. This season, the Shakespeare Theatre. Company presents seven plays. MARIA. For God's sake, Sir Toby, you've got to come home earlier at night. My lady Olivia, your niece, disapproves of your late-night partying. SIR TOBY BELCH .
This is imbibed in the following lines by Viola: O, that I served that lady And might not be delivered to the world Till I had made mine own occasion mellow, What y estate is. Then this play offers us this character of Malvolio who can be seen as the flag earer of so ial aspiratio s , a serious Puritan man with ill humour , the one who gets mocked and befooled by the witty Sir Toby Belch and the maid Maria.
Malvolio becomes a laughing stock because of his superfluous expression of pride and being easily befooled and governed by his aspiration of marrying Olivia. But also, the stu or a d u ourteous parts i Mal olio s hara ter are precisely the qualities of liberty. What is quite conspicuous is that he does t desire his istress as Cesario desires his master but what he really wants is to e Cou t Mal olio.
His secret wish is to defy decorum himself and then relish its power to the fullest over others. His trials to fit in and prove himself in the higher class might often provide him sympathy from the audience and the commiseration of his sorrows can be viewed as bourgeois distortion too. But there is no doubt that he stops the ways for sympathy with his utterly disgusting self love.
Feste, the fool does a brilliant job to convey the reality and sense to the audience which other characters fail to and thus is an irony in himself. He des ri es Mal olio s plight ith su h skill i the lines: I say there is o dark ess ut ig ora e; In which thou art more puzzled than the Egyptians in their fog.
I e a t ords, Mal olio s irtuous ess is a self-limiting automatism. Ho e er ith Mal olio , Shakespeare s o ed o es the audie e with the powers of human nature and liberty. The matrimony and match making in Twelfth Night is done keeping in mind the estate of the parties. Love, understanding, compatibility and other important aspects needed for a marriage to be successful are ignored. And that is the reason why Sir Toby Belch wanted to get his niece married to his friend Aguecheek who might have been born in the upper class but lacks the calibre, intelligence, persona to belong there.
Sir Toby assumes that Olivia would not want to marry Orsino because he is a rank higher, smarter and older. And therefore tries to fit Aguecheek in so that he will exercise control on Oli ia s ealth through hi. The i porta e of arr i g o sideri g class and rank a e ell u derstood Sir To s saying to Olivia: "equality is principally to be considered in matrimonial amity [friendship], as well as years, as are the gifts of nature, and fortune. For equalness herein, makes friendliness.
Maria marries Sir Toby Belch , a man of higher rank and her former aster. Truth a out Viola s ide tit is rought i to light.
Oli ia marries Sebastian and Viola marries Duke Orsino. The theories range from someone stealing a copy to an actor or actors selling the play by relating it from memory to a printer.
Hamlet, for example, is almost twice as long in the Folio as in quarto versions. Recently, scholars have come to realize the value of the different versions.
The Norton Shakespeare, for example, includes all three versions of King Lear — the quarto, the folio, and the conflated version the combination of the quarto and folio. Around the time of this transition in the English monarchy, the 5 famous tragedy Othello — was most likely written and performed, followed closely by King Lear — , Antony and Cleopatra , and Macbeth in the next two years.
Final days During the last years of his career, Shakespeare collaborated on a couple of plays with contemporary dramatist John Fletcher, even possibly coming out of retirement — which scholars believe began sometime in — to work on The Two Noble Kinsmen — Three years later, Shakespeare died on April 23, Though the exact cause of death remains unknown, a vicar from Stratford in the midseventeenth-century wrote in his diary that Shakespeare, perhaps celebrating the marriage of his daughter, Judith, contracted a fever during a night of revelry with fellow literary figures Ben Jonson and Michael Drayton.
Regardless, Shakespeare may have felt his death was imminent in March of that year because he altered his will.
Interestingly, his will mentions no book or theatrical manuscripts, perhaps indicating the lack of value that he put on printed versions of his dramatic works and their status as company property. Yet, rather than serving as a barrier to Shakespeare, the richness of this language should form part of our appreciation of the Bard. One of the first things readers usually notice about the language is the use of pronouns. You may need a little time to get used to these Introduction to Early Modern England 7 changes.
You can find the definitions for other words that commonly cause confusion in the notes column on the right side of each page in this edition. Iambic pentameter Though Shakespeare sometimes wrote in prose, he wrote most of his plays in poetry, specifically blank verse. Blank verse consists of lines in unrhymed iambic pentameter.
Iambic refers to the stress patterns of the line. An iamb is an element of sound that consists of two beats — the first unstressed da and the second stressed DA. Penta-meter has five stressed syllables.
This wordplay often takes the forms of double meanings, called puns, where a word can mean more than one thing in a given context. Shakespeare often employs these puns as a way of illustrating the distance between what is on the surface — apparent meanings — and what meanings lie underneath. Though recognizing these puns may be difficult at first, the notes in the far right column point many of them out to you. Wells, Stanley and Gary Taylor.
William Shakespeare: A Textual Companion. New York: W. Norton and Co. Also, though most of the lines are poetic, do not forget to read complete sentences — move from period to period as well as from line to line.
The Complete Works of Shakespeare. New York: Longman, Evans, G. Blakemore, ed. The Riverside Shakespeare. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co. Greenblatt, Stephen, ed. The Norton Shakespeare. Kastan, David Scott, ed.
A Companion to Shakespeare. Oxford: Blackwell, McDonald, Russ.
Boston: Bedford-St. The term renaissance, meaning rebirth, was applied to this period of English history as a way of celebrating what was perceived as the rapid development of art, literature, science, and politics: in many ways, the rebirth of classical Rome.
First, some scholars argue that the term should not be used because women did not share in the advancements of English culture during this time period; their legal status was still below that of men. Second, other scholars have challenged the basic notion that this 8 CliffsComplete Twelfth Night period saw a sudden explosion of culture.
A rebirth of civilization suggests that the previous period of time was not civilized. Some people use the terms Elizabethan and Jacobean when referring to periods of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. These terms correspond to the reigns of Elizabeth I — and James I — Scholars are now beginning to replace Renaissance with the term Early Modern when referring to this time period, but people still use both terms interchangeably.
The term Early Modern recognizes that this period established many of the foundations of our modern culture. Though critics still disagree about the exact dates of the period, in general, the dates range from to Though his understanding of human nature and relationships seems to apply to our modern lives, we must try to understand the world he lived in so we can better understand his plays.
This introduction helps you do just that. Intellectual context In general, people in Early Modern England looked at the universe, the human body, and science very differently from the way we do. Discoveries made during the Early Modern period concerning the universe and the human body provide the basis of modern science. Cosmology One subject we view very differently than Early Modern thinkers is cosmology. Ptolemy thought that the earth stood at the center of the universe, surrounded by nine concentric rings.
The celestial bodies circled the earth in the following order: the moon, Mercury, Venus, the sun, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and the stars. The entire system was controlled by the primum mobile, or Prime Mover, which initiated and maintained the movement of the celestial bodies. No one had yet discovered the last three planets in our solar system, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto.
In , Nicolaus Copernicus published his theory of a sun-based solar system, in which the sun stood at the center and the planets revolved around it. During the Early Modern period, many people believed that all of creation was organized hierarchically.
God existed at the top, followed by the angels, men, women, animals, plants, and rocks. Because all women were thought to exist below all men on the chain, we can easily imagine the confusion that Elizabeth I caused when she became queen of England. Though the concept of this hierarchy is a useful one when beginning to study Shakespeare, keep in mind that distinctions in this hierarchical view were not always clear and that we should not reduce all Early Modern thinking to a simple chain.
Elements and humors The belief in a hierarchical scheme of existence created a comforting sense of order and balance that carried over into science as well. People associated these four elements with four qualities of being. These qualities — hot, cold, moist, and dry — appeared in different combinations in the elements. For example, air was hot and moist; water was cold and moist; earth was cold and dry; and fire was hot and dry.
In addition, people believed that the human body contained all four elements in the form of humors — blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile — each of which corresponded to an element.
Blood corresponded to air hot and moist , phlegm to water cold and moist , yellow bile to fire hot and dry , and black bile to earth cold and dry. For example, if someone were diagnosed with an abundance of blood, the physician would bleed the patient using leeches or cutting the skin in order to restore the balance. If dominated by yellow bile or choler , that person was irritable. The dominance of phlegm led a person to be dull and kind. And if black bile prevailed, he was melancholy or sad.
Thus, people of Early Modern England often used the humors to explain behavior and emotional 9 outbursts.
As in popular psychology today, humors reduced the complexities of human behavior to a few overly simplified concepts, which were to be applied to almost any situation.
Shakespeare scorns this reductive view; he presents life. He captures and reveals human behavior in more complex terms, allowing his characters to embody contradictions.
A person may behave rationally in certain situations and choleric in others within a play by Shakespeare. With Jonson, this dynamic is never the case; his characters are created to exemplify one specific humor. In effect, Twelfth Night is Shakespeare mocking Jonson as a playwright for being overtly moralizing and self-satisfied, in the manner of Malvolio , as well as reductive in his rendering of the human condition.
Religious context Shakespeare lived in an England full of religious uncertainty and dispute. From the Protestant Reformation to the translation of the Bible into English, the Early Modern era is punctuated with events that have greatly influenced modern religious beliefs.
Beginning in Europe in the early sixteenth century, religious thinkers such as Martin Luther and John Calvin, who claimed that the Roman Catholic 10 CliffsComplete Twelfth Night Church had become corrupt and was no longer following the word of God, began what has become known as the Protestant Reformation.
They also believed in the primacy of the Bible and advocated giving all people access to reading the Bible. He also wrote the first Book of Common Prayer, adopted in , which was the official text for worship services in England. The reign of wife, Catherine of Mary witnessed the reversal of religion in England Aragon, for her failure to produce a male heir. Only through the restoration of Catholic authority and one of their children, Mary, survived past infancy.
Many Protestants fled to Europe approval, which he did in Thus, in the space of a Act of Succession. This succession gave Protestant Introduction to Early Modern England Many Catholics, who remained loyal to Rome and their church, were persecuted for their beliefs. At the other end of the spectrum, the Puritans were persecuted for their belief that the Reformation was not complete.
The English pejoratively applied the term Puritan to religious groups that wanted to continue purifying the English church by such measures as removing the episcopacy, or the structure of bishops. Translated by William Tyndale in , the first authorized Bible in English, published in , was known as the Great Bible. Known as passive obedience, this doctrine did not allow any opposition even to a tyrannical monarch because God had appointed the king or queen for reasons unknown to His subjects on earth.
Parliament, already well established in England, reserved some power, such as the authority to levy taxes, for itself.
Elizabeth I lived in a society that restricted women from possessing any political or personal autonomy and power. As queen, Elizabeth violated and called into question many of the prejudices and practices against women. However, her position did nothing to increase the status of women in England.
Both of the monarchs under whom Shakespeare lived had to deal with religious and political dissenters. Elizabeth I Despite being a Protestant, Elizabeth I tried to take a middle road on the religious question.
She allowed Catholics to practice their religion in private as long as they outwardly appeared Anglican and remained loyal to the throne. In addition, throughout her reign, Elizabeth brilliantly negotiated between domestic and foreign factions — some of whom were anxious about a female monarch and wanted her to marry — appeasing both sides without ever committing to one.
She remained unmarried throughout her year reign, partially by styling herself as the Virgin Queen whose purity represented England herself. Her refusal to marry and her habit of hinting and promising marriage with suitors both foreign and domestic helped Elizabeth maintain internal and external peace. Not marrying allowed her to retain her independence, but it left the succession of the English throne in question.
Some historians refer to him as James VI and I. Like Elizabeth, James was a strong believer in the divine right of kings and their absolute authority. Upon his arrival in London to claim the English throne, James made his plans to unite Scotland and England clear. However, a long-standing history of enmity existed between the two countries.
Partially as a result of this history and the influx of Scottish courtiers into English society, anti-Scottish prejudice abounded in England. As scholars such as Bevington have pointed out, James was less successful than Elizabeth was in negotiating between the different religious and political factions in England.
Although he was a Protestant, he began to have problems with the Puritan sect of the House of Commons, which ultimately led to a rift between the court which also started to have Catholic sympathies and the Parliament.
James I commissioned elaborate feasts, masques, and pageants, and in doing so he more than doubled the royal debt. The primary distinctions between these two classes were ancestry, wealth, and power. Simply put, the aristocrats were the only ones who possessed all three. Aristocrats were born with their wealth, but the growth of trade and the development of skilled professions began to provide wealth for those not born with it. Shakespeare himself used the wealth gained from the theatre to move into the lower ranks of the aristocracy by securing a coat of arms for his family.
Shakespeare was not unique in this movement, but not all people received the opportunity to increase their social status. Members of the aristocracy feared this social movement and, as a result, promoted harsh laws of apprenticeship and fashion, restricting certain styles of dress and material.
These Intro. When Elizabeth died, and James became king, Shakespeare largely eschewed such plays that celebrated a largely untamed feminine spirit. The status of women The legal status of women did not allow them much public or private autonomy. In fact, the family metaphorically corresponded to the state.
For example, the husband was the king of his family. People also saw the family itself differently than today, considering apprentices and servants part of the whole family.
All Shakespeare editors at the time took the speech away from her and gave it to her father, Prospero. At any point in the text, you can hover your cursor over a bracket for more information.
Synopsis Twelfth Night—an allusion to the night of festivity preceding the Christian celebration of the Epiphany—combines love, confusion, mistaken identities, and joyful discovery. After the twins Sebastian and Viola survive a shipwreck, neither knows that the other is alive. Viola, in the meantime, has fallen in love with Orsino.
Malvolio is tricked into making a fool of himself, and he is locked in a dungeon as a lunatic. In the meantime, Sebastian has been rescued by a sea captain, Antonio.Once, in a sea-fight, 'gainst the count his galleys I did some service; of such note indeed, That were I ta'en here it would scarce be answer'd.
I'll serve this duke: O, when mine eyes did see Olivia first, Methought she purged the air of pestilence! The Norton Shakespeare. Sir Andrew Why, would that have mended my hair? Both of the monarchs under whom Shakespeare lived had to deal with religious and political dissenters.
It shall be inventoried, and every particle and utensil labelled to my will: Viola embodies this confusion when she assumes the identity of a boy, Cesario. We must also wonder why Sebastian initially dissembled his identity to Antonio. Nature often encloses things nasty or evil in a beautiful exterior.