How. Learning. Works. Seven Research-Based. Principles for Smart Teaching. Susan A. Ambrose, Michael W. Bridges,. Michele DiPietro, Marsha C. Lovett. How Learning Works: 7 Research-Based. Principles for Smart Teaching. Dr. Michele DiPietro. Executive Director,. Center for Excellence in Teaching and. "How Learning Works is the perfect title for this excellent book. Drawing upon new research in psychology, education, and cognitive science, the authors have .

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We are delighted to review the book How Learning Works: Seven Research- Based Principles for Smart Teaching by Susan A. Ambrose, Michael W. Bridges, . Unlimited Memory: How to Use Advanced Learning Strategies to Learn Faster How English Works (A Grammar Practice Book) - 14, No. 1, February , pp. doi: /josotl.v14i Book Review. How Learning Works: 7 Research-Based Principles for Smart. Teaching.

Yet many of the strategies we use for thinking reflect cultural norms and methods of inquiry Hutchins, ; Brice-Heath, , ; Suina and Smolkin, Research has demonstrated that children can be taught these strategies, including the ability to predict outcomes, explain to oneself in order to improve understanding, note failures to comprehend, activate background knowledge, plan ahead, and apportion time and memory. Reciprocal teaching, for example, is a technique designed to improve students' reading comprehension by helping them explicate, elaborate, and monitor their understanding as they read Palincsar and Brown, The model for using the meta-cognitive strategies is provided initially by the teacher, and students practice and discuss the strategies as they learn to use them.

Ultimately, students are able to prompt themselves and monitor their own comprehension without teacher support.

These strategies are not generic across subjects, and attempts to teach them as generic can lead to failure to transfer. Teaching metacognitive strategies in context has been shown to improve understanding in physics White and Frederickson, , written composition Scardamalia et al. And metacognitive practices have been shown to increase the degree to which students transfer to new settings and events Lin and Lehman, in press; Palincsar and Brown, ; Scardamalia et al.

How Learning Works

Each of these techniques shares a strategy of teaching and modeling the process of generating alternative approaches to developing an idea in writing or a strategy for problem solving in mathematics , evaluating their merits in helping to attain a goal, and monitoring progress toward that goal. Class discussions are used to support skill development, with a goal of independence and self-regulation.

Implications for Teaching The three core learning principles described above, simple though they seem, have profound implications for the enterprise of teaching and teacher preparation. Teachers must draw out and work with the preexisting understanding that their students bring with them. This requires that: The model of the child as an empty vessel to be filled with knowledge provided by the teacher must be replaced. Instead, the teacher must actively inquire into students' thinking, creating classroom tasks and conditions under which student thinking can be revealed.

Students' initial conceptions then provide the foundation on which the more formal understanding of the subject matter is built. The roles for assessment must be expanded beyond the traditional concept of testing.

How Learning Works: Seven Research-Based Principles for Smart Teaching

The use of frequent formative assessment helps make students' thinking visible to themselves, their peers, and their teacher. This provides feedback that can guide modification and refinement in thinking. Given the goal of learning with understanding, assessments must tap understanding rather than merely the ability to repeat facts or perform isolated skills. Teachers must teach some subject matter in depth, providing many examples in which the same concept is at work and providing a firm foundation off actual knowledge.

This requires that: Superficial coverage of all topics in a subject area must be replaced with in-depth coverage of fewer topics that allows key concepts in that discipline to be understood.

The goal of coverage need not be abandoned entirely, of course.

But there must be a sufficient number of cases of in-depth study to allow students to grasp the defining concepts in specific domains within a discipline. Moreover, in-depth study in a domain often requires that ideas be carried beyond a single school year before students can make the transition from informal to formal ideas.

This will require active coordination of the curriculum across school years. Teachers must come to teaching with the experience of in-depth study of the subject area themselves. Before a teacher can develop powerful pedagogical tools, he or she must be familiar with the progress of inquiry and the terms of discourse in the discipline, as well as understand the relationship between information and the concepts that help organize that information in the discipline.

But equally important, the teacher must have a grasp of the growth and development of students' thinking about these concepts. The latter will be essential to developing teaching expertise, but not expertise in the discipline.

It may therefore require courses, or course supplements, that are designed specifically for teachers. Assessment for purposes of accountability e. Assessment tools are often the standard by which teachers are held accountable. A teacher is put in a bind if she or he is asked to teach for deep conceptual understanding, but in doing so produces students who perform more poorly on standardized tests.

Generative teaching Definition As generative learning is a process of generating comprehension by constructing relations between concepts of learning material and between concepts of learning material and knowledge and experiences, it can be improved by encouraging learners to construct such relations.

A model of teaching that gives clear recommendations on how teachers can encourage their learners to construct such relations is the model of generative teaching Wittrock , which is based on the assumptions of the model of generative learning. Theoretical Background As already mentioned, the theoretical background of This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References Grabowski, B. Generative learning. According to Paulsen , teachers should possess 3 types of knowledge: 1 content knowledge—knowledge of the facts, principles, and methods in the discipline that is being taught; 2 pedagogical knowledge—understanding of the learning process and the conditions that facilitate and hinder it, independent of the discipline in which the learning takes place; and 3 pedagogical content knowledge—a term to denote knowledge and understanding of the learning process in the context of a particular discipline.

It goes without saying that mastery of the subject matter theories, principles, and concepts is essential to help students learn the subject. However the knowledge in the subject matter alone is not sufficient for effective teaching—teachers must learn how to use sound pedagogical approaches to help students learn effectively and meaningfully.

Teachers who aspire to improve their teaching should constantly look for a book which can explain and summarize the philosophy of learning in a simple manner without ambiguous jargons that distract the unmotivated readers. Recently I found a book which fulfils these criteria — simple, concise, straight to the point, well organized, and clearly written.

Ambrose, M. Dipietro, M. Lovett, M.

Norman , and also including one M. Bridges from the Univ. I especially like the approach taken by the authors to start each chapter with stories that represent typical teaching situation. The learning principle is discussed and elaborated in relation to the research that underlies it.

Finally, the authors provide a set of strategies to help teachers to design instruction with that principle in mind.

In this chapter, the authors discuss the importance of teachers to recognize that students bring with them prior knowledge acquired naturally through daily life activities or in prior courses they have studied.

Some of the prior knowledge is relevant but some are not directly relevant.

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Sometimes students have misconception or inaccurate understanding of certain key principles or concepts. The authors emphasized the importance of connecting the prior knowledge with the new knowledge in order for effective learning to take place. This connection can be achieved by activating the prior knowledge at appropriate time during the learning process.Educational Psychologist, 27, — In the conclusion section, all 7 learning principles and their interconnectedness are summarized succinctly.

Students' prior knowledge can serve to help or hinder learning. These meta-cognitive monitoring activities are an important component of what is called adaptive expertise Hatano, This requires that: Superficial coverage of all topics in a subject area must be replaced with in-depth coverage of fewer topics that allows key concepts in that discipline to be understood. The authors have extensive knowledge and experience in applying the science of learning to college teaching, and they graciously share it with you in this organized and readable book.