DIESEL GENERATOR HANDBOOK MAHON PDF

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Mahon CEng FIEE FBIM FIQA CDipAF ePub^ Online^ DESCRIPTION Diesel Generator Handbook meets the need for an authoritative reference work covering the range of mechanical and electrical topics embodied in the practical design and application of diesel generating plant. download Diesel Generator Handbook - 1st Edition. Authors: L. L. J. Mahon . Diesel Generator Handbook meets the need for an authoritative reference work. Diesel Generator Handbook L. L. J. Mahon CEng FIEE FBIM FIQA CDipAF. Diesel Generator Handbook meets the need for an authoritative reference work covering the range of mechanical Read Online Diesel Generator Handbook pdf.


Diesel Generator Handbook Mahon Pdf

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I. Title ISBN Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Data Mahon, L. L. J. Diesel generator handbook/l. L. J. Mahon p. cm. Includes bibliographical. pdf-w Diesel generator operation and maintenance manual diesel generator , pages, l. l. j. mahon diesel generator handbook, l. l. j. mahon, . Diesel Generator Handbook by L. L. J. Mahon. The book is a single-source reference on the practical design and application of diesel.

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Our seven previous editions are the. SSFW is a novel about bad waiters who take things too far. They contain optical signal devices such as red sleeves to alert attendant staff when a predetermined pressure drop has been exceeded. Among the more important are: 1. Also, it affords a seal between piston rings and cylinder walls to reduce the seepage of gas that passes from the combustion chamber into the crankcase.

The chief properties of lubricating oils are discussed in Chapter Most engines use a pressurized or force-fed system to circulate the lubricant from an external drain tank or from a sump in the base of the crankcase. The main components of any system are: 1. Deliverr pressure is normally in the range 0. Two pumps are employed in the so-called dry sump system.

Oil that has circulated through the engine oilways returns by gravity to the crankcase pan. The task of the first scavenger pump is to transfer this oil from the pan to a reservoir tank external to the engine.

The second pressure pump draws oil from this tank and delivers it through the heat exchanger and filters to the bearings, etc.

The arrangement, mainly used on higher speed engines, in which the crankcase oil pan is in itself the reservoir is known as a wet sump system. See Figure 1. A semi-wet sump system, combining the basic elements of both wet and dry sump schemes, is sometimes used on engines for marine and off-shore applications, where generators are required to operate in an emergency at specified angles of roll and pitch.

It is important that the oil suction inlet always remains submerged under these conditions. This is done by providing a deep pannier at one end Engine features of the sump, from which the pressure pump supply is drawn. The scavenge pump, driven in tandem with the pressure pump, draws its oil from the shallow end of the sump pan and discharges it into the panmer.

Probably the most severe cylinder wear conditions occur just after an engine has started, and when piston lubrication is at its poorest. For this reason, pre-priming systems are incorporated into lowspeed engines, and higher-rated medium-speed engines.

It is also advisable to use periodic priming of lubricant on the larger high-speed engines, when these are operating in an automatic standby mode. Oil, fed from a separate electric-motor-driven pump, is circulated at periodic intervals through the oilways to flush the liners and generally wet the engine moving parts in readiness for an automatic start. Periodic priming also has the advantage of reducing the severe wear that can occur on cylinders as a result of condensed combustion products, when an engine is at standstill.

Cooling Between one-third and one-half of the heat energy provided by the fuel burned in an engine is converted into mechanical energy. The rest is expended in: 1. The cooling system's function is to remove the unwanted heat from these parts, in order to prevent [3]: 1.

Engines may be either air-cooled or water-cooled. Piston cooling is by oil. Various methods are used. The simplest form employs an oil jet, from the small-end bearing in the connecting rod, splashed against the underside of the piston. Another method is to provide an oil gallery or duct under the piston crown.

Whilst very low output engines may not require separate oil-to-air lubricating oil heat exchangers, they are standard features on larger engines. The design of air-cooled engines is largely determined by their 'unit cylinder' construction. The rest of the engine design follows from this [15]. Good installation of air-cooled engines is critical, especially in high ambient conditions and in confined spaces. Care must be taken with the design and application of air intake, and hot air outlet ducting, to avoid the possibility of hot discharged air being re-circulated within the generator housing.

See also Chapter In water-cooled engines, the liquid coolant is circulated through jackets around the cylinder walls, and through passages in the cylinder heads. Systems may be classified as being either of the open type or of the closed type.

In the open system, water leaving the engine is not returned to it or, if it is, it is exposed to atmospheric air before being recirculated. Typical arrangements are shown diagrammatically in Figure 1. Where direct water cooling is used Figure 1. Most natural water, such as that from rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and ponds, carries scale-forming impurities.

At the high temperatures obtaining in cylinder jackets, the dissolved minerals separate out in solid form and coat the metal surfaces. These scale deposits reduce the rate of heat transfer from the combustion space into the jackets. The result is that the metals are subjected to higher temperatures and local overheating may cause cracks and failures [4]. The penalty for operating at this temperature engines normally run at twice this level is likely to be increased liner and ring wear due to condensation of the acid products 16 Reciprocating internal combustion engines of combustion, and perhaps a small increase in fuel consumption as a result of thicker oil on the cylinder liners [16].

The problems associated with scaling due to water impurity also exist with the cooling tower or spray pond scheme shown in Figure 1. This is because the make-up water required to replace losses due to evaporation brings additional impurities with it. Since the vapour in the tower does not carry away the impurities, these concentrate and may eventually deposit more scale than if the water had been run to waste [4]. Open systems may only be safely used where there is an ample water supply of exceptional purity.

Where engines are required to run continuously for long periods, the better method is to use treated water circulating in closed circuit, and to transfer the engine heat to a heat exchanger. This means that the engine coolant is never exposed to air and remains in the system indefinitely. Several schemes may be used. Some are shown in Figure 1. Thermostatic elements are incorporated within the closed circuit to by-pass the 'heat exchanger' when starting from cold, so as to allow the engine to attain its operating temperature more quickly.

The water-to-water heat exchangers used in the first two schemes are of the shell-and-tube type. Where an unlimited supply is available, the so-called raw water may be passed through the tubes of the heat exchanger to waste; or to some process from which it is not returned Figure 1. This is known as a 'once-through' system. Heat exchangers are not as seriously affected by scale deposits as are engine waterways. The raw water should be passed through the tubes of the heat exchanger, because the inside of the tube can be cleaned more easily than the outside [4].

Pre-knowledge of the character and quality of the water is necessary to ensure correct selection of materials for the tubes. The system most often employed is that shown in Figure 1. The radiator may either be mounted on the same baseframe as its engine-generator assembly, or it may be remote-mounted. Set-mounted types usually have engine-driven cooling fans, whilst remote units incorporate single or multiple fans driven by electric motors.

Single- or double-sectioned radiators are employed, on small- or medium-sized engines. Multi-sectioned units may be used on larger engines, to provide separate circuits for engine and turbocharger jacket water, lubricating oil, and charge air cooling. The cooler or wet-type tower of Figure 1. Its coils, which form a water-to-water heat exchanger for the engine's closed circuit, have a large surface area.

Evaporation of the secondary cooling water is then achieved by either producing water droplets by spray , or by forming thin films. A motor driven fan pulls the air through the top of the tower, or forces it from the bottom. The draught so created removes the evaporated water molecules. Special precautions are necessary in order to reduce the risk of legionellae Legionnaires' disease. See Sub-section Since most modern medium- and high-speed engines are designed for high-temperature coolant conditions, they employ pressurized closed circuit cooling systems.

Diesel Generator Handbook By L. L. J. Mahon

System pressures may vary from O. Whatever the system, it is always advisable to use a high rate of jacket circulation, with a small temperature difference between engine inlet and outlet, rather than a slow circulation and a large temperature rise.

It is perhaps more appropriate to use the term 'coolant' rather than water, when describing the cooling medium in water-cooled engines. This is because engine makers specify formulations of clean Engine features fresh water and approved rust and corrosion inhibitors. They do not recommend the use of plain tap, well, distilled or deionized water as engine coolants. The inhibitors are gradually consumed in service. If the pH value of the coolant should fall outside a specified range, it is necessary to add inhibitor s - to the same specification as those already in use.

Likewise, coolant for topping-up purposes must be to the same formulation and strength as that in the engine. Pressure charging We shall establish, in later discussions see Chapter 2 , that the density of the air entering the cylinders has a significant bearing upon the power that can be developed by an engine. This is because the air's density regulates the amount of fuel that can be burned within the cylinder during the power stroke.

The working cylinder in a naturally-aspirated engine is charged not fully with fresh air at atmospheric temperature and pressure, at the end of its induction stroke. In practice, when the piston sucks in air a partial vacuum is created so that not even atmospheric pressure obtains in the cylinder. Also, the incoming air is diluted and warmed by residual exhaust gases in the cylinder.

At high altitudes, where air pressure is low, and at locations with high ambient temperatures, the engine's power rating must be reduced to compensate for atmospheric variations see Chapter 2. If a compressor is employed to supply the engine with intake air at a pressure higher than atmospheric, the engine's mean effective pressure and therefore its power output may be increased without altering crankshaft speed or cylinder volume.

This, effectively, is what pressure charging does. They are distinguished by the method used to drive the compressor: 1. Most of the compressors used in supercharging are of the 'positive displacement' rotary type. Those of the Roots type employ two impellers or rotors , whose shafts are in parallel; and rotate in opposite directions within the compressor housing. Each impeller has two or three vanes or lobes which mesh with those on the other impeller - in much the same way as gear teeth.

The action of the 'compressor' is then similar to that of a gear pump. In truth, it is not a compressor, but simply an 'air displacer'. Nowa- 17 days, supercharging is confined to small high speed engines of the type used in cars and passenger vehicles, but, even in that market, turbocharging is being developed to meet the demands for more rapid boost response and better boost levels at low speed [17]. The power generated in the turbine must be equal to that required by the compressor.

Figure 1. Turbocharger designs vary from the simple types used on high speed engines to those employed on large medium- and slow-speed engines. The former types employ single-stage radial flow centrifugal compressors and radial flow turbines mounted on a common shaft with an inboard bearing system, see Figure 1. Designs for the latter types vary considerably from one manufacturer to another.

Typically, they include single-stage radial flow compressors, which may be of two-piece construction, and water-cooled axial flow turbines. There has been a trend towards non-cooled or air cooled turbines, as a means of promoting higher gas exit temperatures for waste heat recovery systems [6].

Lubrication is self-contained and separate oil supplies are used for turbocharger and engine bearing systems [18]. Two turbocharging arrangements are generally used on engines for electrical power generation: 18 Reciprocating internal combustion engines Item no.

Pulse turbocharging The pulse system was the first to be developed and the majority of engines use it today in one or other form - derived from the original 'pure impulse' concept [6]. It makes direct use of the high velocity of gas surging from each cylinder when its exhaust valves open.

These pulsating gases flow through carefully-designed manifold pipes to the exhaust turbine of the turbocharger. Two or more separate exhaust manifolds are used on multi-cylinder engines to prevent the exhaust pulse of one cylinder blowing back into another which is being 'exhausted'. Two or three cylinders are usually arranged to exhaust into each manifold. The turbine has several inlet openings. Each is connected to corresponding nozzle ring segments which deflect the exhaust gases into the turbine wheel.

It is important that there is significant overlap between the opening times of inlet and exhaust valves, after pulse decay. This requirement is vital for the efficient scavenging of two-stroke engines [6]. The pulse system is the most effective arrangement for standby generator applications where rapid run-up to operating speed and minimum speed variations on load-step changes are required [ Name of part Core assembly Shaft and turbo wheel assembly Piston ring Thrust ring Spacer Oil deflector Finger sleeve Lock nut Compressor wheel Insert Retaining ring '0' ring insert Thrust bearing 8earing housing assembly Bearing Snap ring Oil control sleeve Oil inlet gasket Oil drain gasket Serial nameplate Self tapping screw Warning tag - oil Compressor cover Locknut 'V' clamp 'V' clamp Turbine housing Turbine inlet gasket Washer Lockwasher Setscrew Retaining ring Turbine back plate Constant pressure turbocharging In the constant pressure system, all the engine's cylinders exhaust into one large manifold in order to minimize the pressure pulses and absorb their energy.

Near steady-state and constant pressure conditions then obtain at the turbine wheel. Engines rated above 14 bar bmep brake mean effective pressure now use this system for power generation, and high load demand [19]. Its main advantages are: 1. Militating against these advantages is the relatively poor performance of the system at part load conditions and during large load-step changes [6].

Two-stroke engines usually employ constant pressure turbocharging. Because it is difficult to obtain a self-sustained air supply to the engine over its whole speed range, some supplementary assistance is required [6]. One method is to use the engine's scavenging pump or blower in series, or in parallel, with the turbocharger.

Atmospheric air drawn into, and compressed by, the scavenging pump is passed to the turbocharger, where it is pressurized. Engine features Thus, at light loads, where there is insufficient energy in the exhaust gases to drive the turbocharger at the speed required for the necessary air flow, the scavenging pump alone puts air into the cylinders.

Then, as engine load increases, the pump is unloaded and the turbocharger provides both scavenging and pressure-charged air to the cylinders. Another scheme makes use of a separate compressed air supply - such as that which is provided for engine starting. Compressed air is fed, on starting, to the turbocharger to get it going. The jets of air may be fed either to the gas turbine or to the compressor wheel.

In the latter case, the air passes into the engine cylinders and directly assists the scavenging process. This system is known as jet air starting [4]. Charge air cooling The full potential of the increase in air inlet density by pressure charging is marginally offset by an increase in air temperature arising from adiabatic compression in the turboblower. This loss is recoverable by the use of charge air coolers intercoolers placed downstream of the turboblower, which have the effect of increasing the charge air density.

This allows more fuel to be injected into the cylinder, so raising the engine's power output. The lower air intake temperature has the further effect of reducing not only the maximum cylinder pressure but also the exhaust temperature, and with it, the engine's thermal loading. Another spin-off is a reduction in nitrogen oxide NOx emissions. Charge air coolers are heat exchangers in which the heat transfer medium may be either water or air.

Some typical schemes are shown in Figure 1. Air-to-water systems may use the engine's jacket water the commonest form of intercooler - Figure 1. The first method offers the simplest installation but cooling is limited by the high water temperature.

Where a separate water supply is used, one has the choice of: 1. The air-to-air charge cooler is then one element of a radiator, whose other sections are used for cooling the engine's jacket water and, possibly, the lubricating oil as 19 well. The intercooler section is placed in front air-side of the other elements see Figure 1. This arrangement gives very efficient intercooling. Its major disadvantage is the cost of the large radiator.

Exhaust gas turbocharged and intercooled engines can deliver as much as twice the continuous power available from an equivalent naturallyaspirated engine of similar speed and cylinder volume. Also, appreciable reductions in specific fuel consumption rates are achieved at all load levels. Less arduous working conditions at the cylinders give increased engine reliability and reduced maintenance.

On the debit side, it is impractical to expect a turbocharged engine to accept full load in one step from an initial start-up condition. See Section 2. High pressure two-stage turbocharging Some manufacturers employ four-stage or twin turbocharging on medium speed, 4-stroke engines, to give higher air intake densities.

This boosts power 20 Reciprocating internal combustion engines beyond the limits imposed by the flow characteristics of conventional single-stage compressors. The system uses two turbochargers operating in series. A typical arrangement is shown in Figure 1. The engine exhausts into the HP turbine where the gas partially expands before it passes to the LP turbine, in which expansion is completed.

Amospheric air first enters the LP compressor and then passes via an intercooler to the HP compressor. Here, it is compressed still further before passing through an aftercooler to the engine.

Diesel Generator Handbook

The engine power gain offsets the cost of the second turbocharger. By dividing the compressor work into two stages, one also obtains the higher working pressures required - without exceeding the flow range of either compressor, or the efficient operating range of either turbine [5].

The load-acceptance capability of the engine is considerably enhanced.Engines may be applied to a wide range of power requirements by simply changing the number of cylinders, and engine operating speed. A keen observer of the interaction order of everyday life. It will enlarge your perspective on the forces of evil that Diesel Generator Handbook L.

Oil, fed from a separate electric-motor-driven pump, is circulated at periodic intervals through the oilways to flush the liners and generally wet the engine moving parts in readiness for an automatic start. Medium speed engines are designed to accept the heavier distillate fuels; and some can run on blends of distillate and residual fuels. The terms primary driving end and free or secondary driving end were in use before the withdrawal of BS in , and may still be found in some engine specifications.

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